ABCAcceptable biological catch. See below.
acceptable biological catchThe ABC is a scientific calculation of the sustainable harvest level of a fishery and is used to set the upper limit of the annual total allowable catch. It is calculated by applying the estimated (or proxy) harvest rate that produces maximum sustainable yield to the estimated exploitable stock biomass (the portion of the fish population that can be harvested).
ACEArmy Corps of Engineers
ACLAnnual catch limit
ACOEArmy Corps of Engineers
ACTAnnual catch target
ADFGAlaska Department of Fish and Game
AFAAmerican Fisheries Act
AFSCAlaska Fisheries Science Center (National Marine Fisheries Service)
AISAquatic invasive species
allocationDistribution of fishing opportunity among user groups or individuals. Shares are sometimes based on historic harvest amounts.
alternativesIn the context of an environmental impact statement for annual fisheries management measures, alternatives are different suites of optimum yields and management measures that could be used to manage fisheries.
AMAccountability measures
AMPAdaptive Management Program
anadromousFish that spend their adult life in the sea, but swim upriver to freshwater spawning grounds in order to reproduce.
anglerA person catching fish or shellfish with no intent to sell; includes people releasing the catch.
APAAdministrative Procedures Act
ATMAcoustic trawl method
B25%25% of unfished biomass (size of fish stock without fishing). For groundfish, this is the threshold for being designated as overfished.
B40%40% of unfished biomass (size of fish stock without fishing). This is the Council’s threshold for declaring a stock rebuilt, or the size of the stock estimated to produce maximum sustainable yield. This is also referred to as BMSY.
BABiological assessment. See below.
barotraumaPhysical trauma or injury to a fish due to pressure change. When a fish is rapidly brought from deep water to the surface, the drop in pressure can cause a variety of physical problems, such as severe expansion of the swim bladder and gas bubbles in the blood.
bathymetryThe science of measuring the ocean’s depth.
Bathypelagic ZoneThe zone of the ocean that extends from 1,000 to 4,000 meters below the ocean surface.
BBBriefing Book
BCBudget Committee
BDCPBay Delta Conservation Plan
benthicRefers to organisms that live on or in the ocean floor.
best available scienceThe term “best available science” comes from the second National Standard listed in the Magnuson-Stevens Act and is the informational standard mandated for decision making.
biological assessment (BA)An assessment conducted as part of the Endangered Species Act process.
Biological Opinion (BO)A scientific assessment issued by the National Marine Fisheries Service or U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, as required by the Endangered Species Act for listed species. Determines the likelihood of an action to jeopardize the existence of a species listed under the Endangered Species Act.
biomassThe total weight of a stock of fish.
BiOpBiological opinion. See above.
BLMBureau of Land Management. Administers 261 million acres of public lands, mainly in the West.
BOEMBureau of Ocean Energy Management
BMSY (B sub MSY)The biomass that allows maximum sustainable yield to be taken. Also see B40%.
BOBiological opinion. See above.
Bo (B sub zero)Unfished biomass; the estimated size of a fish stock in the absence of fishing.
BORU.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Responsible for managing water distribution in the West.
BPABonneville Power Administration. BPA markets electricity from 31 federally-owned dams in the Columbia River basin.
BRDBycatch reduction device. See below.
bycatchFish that are captured in a fishery, but that are discarded (returned to the sea) rather than being sold, kept for personal use, or donated to a charitable organization. Bycatch plus landed catch equals the total catch or total estimated fishing mortality.
C&SCeremonial and subsistence. See below.
CalCOFICalifornia Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations
California BightThe region of concave coastline off Southern California between the headland at Point Conception and the U.S./Mexican border, and encompassing various islands, shallow banks, basins, and troughs extending from the coast roughly 200 km offshore.
California Rockfish Conservation AreaThe California Rockfish Conservation Area (CRCA) is defined as (1) ocean waters 20 fm to 250 fm between Cape Mendocino and Point Reyes and 20 fm to 150 fm between Point Reyes and the U.S./Mexico Border, and (2) the Cowcod Conservation Areas. The purpose of the CRCA is to regulate all gear types that have a potentially significant affect on rebuilding of overfished rockfish species south of Cape Mendocino.
catch per unit of effortThe quantity of fish caught (in number or weight) with one standard unit of fishing effort. For example, the number of fish taken per 1,000 hooks per day, or the weight of fish, in tons, taken per hour of trawling. CPUE is often considered an index of fish biomass (or abundance). Sometimes referred to as catch rate. CPUE may be used as a measure of economic efficiency of fishing as well as an index of fish abundance.
CBNMSCordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary
CCACowcod Conservation Area(s). See below.
CCECalifornia Current Ecosystem
CCCCouncil Coordination Committee
CCIClimate and Commununities Initiative
CCIEACalifornia Current Integrated Ecosystem Assessment
CCCTAd Hoc Climate and Communities Core Team
CDFWCalifornia Department of Fish and Wildlife (formerly CDFG, Fish and Game)
CEQCouncil on Environmental Quality
CEQACalifornia Environmental Quality Act
ceremonial and subsistenceA harvest category specific to native American tribes.
cetaceansMarine mammals of the order Cetacea. Includes whales, dolphins and porpoises.
CFACommunity fishing association
CFRCode of Federal Regulations. See below.
cfsCubic feet per second. A measure of running water in a stream or river.
Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary.A 1,252-square-nautical-mile area of the Santa Barbara Channel designated as a marine sanctuary in 1980. It encompasses an area out to six nautical miles around the islands of San Miguel, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, Anacapa, and Santa Barbara. CINMS is one of 13 National Marine Sanctuaries around the country.
CINMSChannel Islands National Marine Sanctuary. See above.
CITESConvention of International Trade in Endangered Species
coastal pelagic speciesCoastal pelagic species are schooling fish, not associated with the ocean bottom, that migrate in coastal waters. They usually eat plankton and are the main food source for higher level predators such as tuna, salmon, most groundfish, and humans. Examples are herring, squid, anchovy, sardine, and mackerel.
Coastal Zone Management ActThe main objective of the CZMA is to encourage and assist states in developing coastal zone management programs, to coordinate state activities, and to safeguard the regional and national interests in the coastal zone. It requires that any federal activity (including fishery management regulations) directly affecting the coastal zone of a state be consistent with that state’s approved coastal zone management program, since activities that take place beyond the territorial sea may affect the coastal zone.
Code of Federal RegulationsA codification of the regulations published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government. The CFR is divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to federal regulation. Title 50 contains wildlife and fisheries regulations.
coded-wire tagCoded-wire tags are small pieces of stainless steel wire that are injected into the snouts of juvenile salmon and steelhead. Each tag is etched with a binary code that identifies its release group.
cod-endThe end of a trawl net, which retains the catch.
COE(U.S. Army) Corps of Engineers. Among other things, the COE manages hydropower facilities, conducts dredging operations, and builds breakwaters and jetties.
cohortIn a stock, a group of fish born during the same time period.
cohort replacement rateThe rate at which each subsequent cohort, or generation, replaces the previous one.
commercial fishingFishing in which the fish harvested, either whole or in part, are intended to enter commerce through sale, barter, or trade.
co-occurring stocksDifferent stocks of fish that swim or school near one another and may be caught together.
COPCouncil Operating Procedures
CouncilPacific Fishery Management Council
Cowcod Conservation Area(s)Two areas located in the Southern California Bight southwest of Santa Monica to the California/Mexico border that encompass roughly 4,300 square nautical miles of habitat where the highest densities of cowcod occur. These areas are closed to bottom fishing in order to rebuild the cowcod stock.
CPFVCommercial passenger fishing vessel (charter boat)
CPSCoastal pelagic species. See above.
CPSASCoastal Pelagic Species Advisory Subpanel
CPSMTCoastal Pelagic Species Management Team
CPUECatch per unit of effort. See above.
CRColumbia River
CRCACalifornia Rockfish Conservation Area. See above.
CRITFCColumbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission
CSPHalibut Catch Sharing Plan
cumulative limitThe total allowable amount of a species or species group, by weight, that a vessel may take and retain, possess, or land during a period of time. Fishers may take as many landings of a species or species complex as they like as long as they do not exceed the cumulative limit that applies to the vessel or permit during the designated period.
CVPIACentral Valley Project Improvement Act
CWTCoded-wire tag. See above.
CZMACoastal Zone Management Act. See above.
DEISDraft Environmental Impact Statement (see EIS, NEPA)
demersalLiving near, and depending on, the sea floor. For example, cods, groupers, and halibut are demersal. (Pronounced “deMERsal”).
derby fisheryA fishery of brief duration during which fishers race to take as much catch as they can before the fishery closes.
DFO(Canada) Department of Fisheries and Oceans
DFWDepartment of Fish and Wildlife
DGNDrift gillnet
DOCDepartment of Commerce. Parent organization of the National Marine Fisheries Service.
DOIDepartment of Interior
DOJDepartment of Justice. DOJ attorneys represent the Secretary of Commerce in litigation on fishery management plans.
DOSDepartment of State
DTLDaily trip limit
DTSDover sole, thornyhead, and trawl-caught sablefish complex
EAEnvironmental assessment (see NEPA, EIS). See below.
EASEcosystem Advisory Subpanel
EBMEcosystem-based management
ECEnforcement Consultants, or ecosystem component.
EDExecutive Director
EDFEnvironmental Defense Fund
EEZExclusive Economic Zone. See below.
EFHEssential fish habitat. See below.
EFHRCEssential Fish Habitat Review Committee
EFINEconomic Fishery Information Network, administered by the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission.
EFMPEcosystem Fishery Management Plan
EFPExempted fishing permit. See below.
EIREnvironmental impact review
EISEnvironmental impact statement. See below.
El Niño Southern OscillationAbnormally warm ocean climate conditions, which in some years affect the eastern coast of Latin America (centered on Peru) often around Christmas time. The anomaly is accompanied by dramatic changes in species abundance and distribution, higher local rainfall and flooding, and massive deaths of fish and their predators. Many other climactic anomalies around the world are attributed to consequences of El Niño.
EMElectronic monitoring
Endangered Species ActAn act of Federal law that provides for the conservation of endangered and threatened species of fish, wildlife, and plants. When preparing fishery management plans, councils are required to consult with the National Marine Fisheries Service and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to determine whether the fishing under a fishery management plan is likely to jeopardize the continued existence of an ESA-listed species or to result in harm to its critical habitat.
endorsementA designation on a limited entry permit that authorizes the use of the permit for a particular gear, length of vessel, or in a particular segment of the fishery.
Enforcement ConsultantsA Council committee that provides advice on enforcement of fishery regulations.
ENSOEl Niño Southern Oscillation. See above.
environmental assessmentAs part of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, an EA is a concise public document that provides evidence and analysis for determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) or a Finding of No Significant Impact.
Environmental impact statementAs part of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, an EIS is an analysis of the expected impacts resulting from the implementation of a fisheries management or development plan (or some other proposed action) on the environment. EISs are required for all fishery management plans as well as significant amendments to existing plans. The purpose of an EIS is to ensure the fishery management plan gives appropriate consideration to environmental values in order to prevent harm to the environment.
EOExecutive Order
EPAEnvironmental Protection Agency
EPDTEcosystem Plan Development Team
EPOEastern Pacific Ocean
ESAEndangered Species Act. See above.
escapementThe number or proportion of fish surviving (escaping from) a given fishery at the end of the fishing season and reaching the spawning grounds. Term generally used for salmon management.
essential fish habitatThose waters and substrate necessary to fish for spawning, breeding, feeding or growth to maturity.
Estimated discard mortalityEstimates of discards can be made in a variety of ways, including samples from observers and logbook records. Fish (or parts of fish) can be discarded for a variety of reasons such as having physical damage, being a non-target species for the trip, and compliance with management regulations like minimum size limits or quotas.
ESUEvolutionarily significant unit
evolutionarily significant unitAn Evolutionarily Significant Unit or “ESU” is a distinctive group of Pacific salmon, steelhead, or sea-run cutthroat trout that is uniquely adapted to a particular area or environment and cannot be replaced.
EWGEcosystem Workgroup
Exclusive Economic ZoneA zone under national jurisdiction (up to 200 nautical miles wide) declared in line with the provisions of the 1982 United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea, within which the coastal State has the right to explore and exploit, and the responsibility to conserve and manage, the living and non-living resources.
exempted fishing permitA permit issued by National Marine Fisheries Service that allows exemptions from some regulations in order to study the effectiveness, bycatch rate, or other aspects of an experimental fishing gear. Previously known as an “experimental fishing permit.”
FThe instantaneous rate of fishing mortality. The term “fishing mortality rate” is a technical fishery science term that is often misunderstood. It refers to the rate at which animals are removed from the stock by fishing. The fishing mortality rate can be confusing because it is an “instantaneous” rate that is useful in mathematical calculations, but is not easily translated into the more easily understood concept of “percent annual removal.”
F=0Fishing mortality equals zero (no fishing).
FADFish aggregating device. See below.
FAOFood & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
fathomUsed chiefly in measuring marine depth. A fathom equals six feet.
FecundityThe potential to produce offspring.
Federal RegisterThe Federal Register is the official daily publication for Rules, Proposed Rules, and Notices of Federal agencies and organizations, as well as Executive Orders and other Presidential documents. Fisheries regulations are not considered final until they are published in the Federal Register.
FEISFinal Environmental Impact Statement (see EIS, NEPA).
FEPFishery ecosystem plan
FERCFederal Energy Regulatory Commission. Regulates hydropower operations and offshore wave energy.
Finding of no significant impactAs part of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) is a document that explains why an action that is not otherwise excluded from the NEPA process, and for which an environmental impact statement (EIS) will not be prepared, will not have a significant effect on the human environment.
Fish aggregating deviceArtificial or natural floating objects placed on the ocean surface, often anchored to the bottom, to attract several schooling fish species underneath, thus increasing their catchability.
Fish stockA population of a species of fish from which catches are taken in a fishery. Use of the term “fish stock” usually implies that the particular population is more or less isolated from other stocks of the same species, and hence self-sustaining.
Fishery management councilA fisheries management body established by the Magnuson-Stevens Act to manage fishery resources in designated regions of the United States. Membership varies in size depending on the number of states involved. There are eight regional Councils, including the Pacific Council.
Fishery management planA plan, and its amendments, that contains measures for conserving and managing specific fisheries and fish stocks.
Fishery management unitThe species or stocks of fish managed under a fishery management plan.
FishingThe catching, taking, or harvesting of fish; the attempted catching, taking, or harvesting of fish; any other activity that can reasonably be expected to result in the catching, taking, or harvesting of fish; any operations at sea in support of, or in preparation for, any of these activities. This term does not include any activity by a vessel conducting authorized scientific research.
Fishing communityA community which is substantially dependent on or substantially engaged in the harvest or processing of fishery resources to meet social and economic needs. Includes fishing vessel owners, fishing families, operators, crew, recreational fishers, fish processors, gear suppliers, and others in the community who depend on fishing.
Fixed gearFishing gear that is stationary after it is deployed (unlike trawl or troll gear which is moving when it is actively fishing). Within the context of the groundfish limited entry fleet, “fixed gear” means longline and fishpot (trap) gear. Within the context of the entire groundfish fishery, fixed gear includes longline, fishpot, and any other gear that is anchored at least at one end.
FLFork length. See below.
FmFathom (6 feet)
FMCFishery management council. See above.
FMPFishery management plan. See above.
FMSYThe fishing mortality rate that maximizes catch biomass in the long term.
FOIAFreedom of Information Act
FONSIFinding of no significant impact. See above.
FootropeThe rope along the bottom of a trawl net’s opening. Small footropes can get caught or tangled in rocky reef areas, so regulations that require small footropes protect these rocky areas by encouraging skippers to fish elsewhere.
Fork lengthA measurement used frequently for fish length when the tail has a fork shape. Projected straight distance between the tip of the fish and the fork of the tail.
FRFederal Register. See above.
FRAMFishery Regulation Assessment Model. Typically used for salmon.
FTEFull time employee
FWSU.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
FX%The rate of fishing mortality that will reduce female spawning biomass per recruit to x percent of its unfished level. F100% is zero, and F35% is a reasonable proxy for FMSY. (All figures after “F” should be subscript.)
GAOGeneral Accounting Office
GAPGroundfish Advisory Subpanel. See below.
GDPGross Domestic Product
GEMPACAd Hoc Groundfish Electronic Monitoring Policy Advisory Committee
GEMTACAd hoc Groundfish Electronic Monitoring Technical Advisory Committee
GESWGroundfish Endangered Species Workgroup
GFNMSGulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary
GISGeographic Information System
GMTGroundfish Management Team. See below.
GPSGlobal Positioning System
Groundfish Advisory SubpanelThe Council established the GAP to obtain the input of the people most affected by, or interested in, the management of the groundfish fishery. This advisory body is made up of representatives with recreational, trawl, fixed gear, open access, tribal, environmental, and processor interests. Their advice is solicited when preparing fishery management plans, reviewing plans before sending them to the Secretary, reviewing the effectiveness of plans once they are in operation, and developing annual and inseason management.
Groundfish Management TeamGroundfish management plans and annual and inseason management recommendations are prepared by the Council’s GMT, which consists of scientists and managers with specific technical knowledge of the groundfish fishery.
Habitat areas of particular concern.Subsets of essential fish habitat (see EFH) containing particularly sensitive or vulnerable habitats that serve an important ecological function, are particularly sensitive to human-induced environmental degradation, are particularly stressed by human development activities, or comprise a rare habitat type.
HAPCHabitat areas of particular concern. See above.
Harvest guideline(s)A numerical harvest level that is a general objective, but not a quota. Attainment of a harvest guideline does not require a management response, but it does prompt review of the fishery.
Harvest specificationsThe detailed regulations that make up management measures – for example, trawl footrope size, depth limits, net mesh size, etc.
HCHabitat Committee
HCRHarvest control rule
HGHarvest guideline(s). See above.
High seasAll waters beyond the EEZ (3-200 mile zone) of the United States and beyond any foreign nation’s EEZ.
Highly migratory speciesIn the Council context, highly migratory species in the Pacific Ocean include species managed under the HMS Fishery Management Plan: tunas, sharks, billfish/swordfish, and dorado or dolphinfish.
HMSHighly migratory species. See above.
HMS FMPHighly Migratory Species Fishery Management Plan. This is the fishery management plan (and its subsequent revisions) for the Washington, Oregon, and California Highly Migratory Species Fisheries developed by the PFMC and approved by the Secretary of Commerce.
HMSASHighly Migratory Species Advisory Subpanel
HMSMTHighly Migratory Species Management Team
HMSPDT*Highly Migratory Species Plan Development Team
IATTCInter-American Tropical Tuna Commission
IBQIndividual bycatch quota. IBQs are used to control the catch of prohibited species.
IDFGIdaho Department of Fish and Game
IEAIntegrated Ecosystem Assessment
IFQIndividual fishing quota. See below.
Incidental catch or incidental species.Species caught when fishing for the primary purpose of catching a different species.
Incidental takeThe “take” of protected species (such as listed salmon, marine mammals, sea turtles, or sea birds) during fishing. “Take” is defined as to harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture or collect, or to attempt to engage in any such conduct.
Individual transferable (or tradeable) quota.A type of quota (a part of a total allowable catch) allocated to individual fishermen or vessel owners and which can be transferred (sold, leased) to others.
INPFCInternational North Pacific Fishery Commission. See below.
Inseason adjustmentsRegulatory changes that affect an ongoing fishery.
International Pacific Halibut Commission.A Commission responsible for studying Pacific halibut stocks and the halibut fishery. The IPHC makes proposals to the U.S. and Canada concerning the regulation of the halibut fishery.
InvertebrateAn animal, such as a mollusk, with no spinal column
IPHCInternational Pacific Halibut Commission. See above.
IQIndividual quota
ISCInternational Scientific Committee for Tuna and Tuna-like Species in the North Pacific Ocean
ITQIndividual Transferable (or Tradable) Quota. See above.
IUUIllegal, unregulated, and unreported
KBRAKlamath Basin Restoration Agreement
KMZKlamath management zone (ocean zone between Humbug Mountain and Horse Mountain where management emphasis is on Klamath River fall Chinook)
KRFCKlamath River fall Chinook
LAPPLimited Access Privilege Program
LCLegislative Committee
LCNLingcod - North
LCNLower Columbia natural
LCRLower Columbia River
LCSLingcod - South
LELimited entry fishery. See below.
Length requirementThe requirement that specifies that permits may not be registered for use with vessels more than five feet longer (in overall length) than the length endorsed on the permit.
Limited entry fisheryA fishery for which a fixed number of permits have been issued in order to limit participation.
LNGLiquified natural gas
Local depletionLocal depletion occurs when localized catches take more fish than can be replaced either locally or through fish migrating into the catch area. Local depletion can occur apart from the status of the overall stock, and can be greater than decreases in the entire stock.
Magnuson-Stevens ActMagnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act. See below.
Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act.The MSFCMA, sometimes known as the “Magnuson-Stevens Act,” established the 200-mile fishery conservation zone, the regional fishery management council system, and other provisions of U.S. marine fishery law.
Marine Mammal Protection ActThe MMPA prohibits the harvest or harassment of marine mammals, although permits for incidental take of marine mammals while commercial fishing may be issued subject to regulation. (See “incidental take” for a definition of “take”).
Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistical Survey.A national survey conducted by National Marine Fisheries Service to estimate the impact of recreational fishing on marine resources.
Maximum fishing mortality threshold.A limit identified in the National Standard Guidelines. A fishing mortality rate above this threshold constitutes overfishing.
Maximum sustainable yieldAn estimate of the largest average annual catch or yield that can be continuously taken over a long period from a stock under prevailing ecological and environmental conditions. Since MSY is a long-term average, it need not be specified annually, but may be reassessed periodically based on the best scientific information available.
MBNMSMonterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary
mean generation timeA measure of the time required for a female to produce a reproductively-active female offspring.
MEWModel Evaluation Workgroup (for salmon)
MFCMAMagnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act. The Fishery Conservation and Management Act was renamed the “Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act” in 1980. The MFCMA established the 200-mile fishery conservation zone and the regional fishery management council system.
MFMTMaximum fishing mortality threshold. See above.
MHHWMean higher high water level (high tide line)
Minimum stock size thresholdA threshold biomass used to determine if a stock is overfished. The Council proxy for MSST is B25%.
Mixed stock exceptionIn “mixed-stock complexes,” many species of fish swim together and are caught together. This becomes a problem when some of these stocks are healthy and some are overfished, because even a sustainable harvest of the healthy stocks can harm the depleted stock. In order to avoid having to shut down all fisheries to protect one particular overfished stock, the national standard guidelines allow a “mixed-stock” exception to the “overfished” definition. This would allow higher catches of some overfished species than ordinarily allowed in order to avoid severe hardship to fishing communities.
MMPAMarine Mammal Protection Act. See above.
MOAMemorandum of Agreement
MOUMemorandum of Understanding
MPAMarine protected areas
MRFSSMarine Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey. See above.
MSAMagnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act. See above.
MSEManagement strategy evaluation
MSFCMAMagnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act. See above.
MSRAMagnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Reauthorization Act of 2006
MSSTMinimum stock size threshold. See above.
MSYMaximum sustainable yield. See above.
mtMetric ton. 1000 kilos or 2,204.62 pounds. (A “short ton” is 2000 lbs.)
NANot available
National Environmental Policy Act.Passed by Congress in 1969, NEPA requires Federal agencies to consider the environment when making decisions regarding their programs. Section 102(2)(C) requires Federal agencies to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) before taking major Federal actions that may significantly affect the quality of the human environment. The EIS includes: the environmental impact of the proposed action, any adverse environmental effects which cannot be avoided should the proposed action be implemented, alternatives to the proposed action, the relationship between local short-term uses of the environment and long-term productivity, and any irreversible commitments of resources which would be involved in the proposed action should it be implemented.
National Marine Fisheries Service.A division of the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). NMFS is responsible for conservation and management of offshore fisheries (and inland salmon). The NMFS Regional Director is a voting member of the Council.
National standard guidelinesGuidelines issued by National Marine Fisheries Service to provide comprehensive guidance for the development of fishery management plans and amendments that comply with the national standards of the Magnuson-Stevens Act. These guidelines are found in Title 50, Code of Federal Regulations, part 600.
Nearshore“Nearshore” is defined (by the California Nearshore Fishery Management Plan) as the area from the high-tide line offshore to a depth of 120 ft (20 fm)
NEPANational Environmental Policy Act. See above.
NGONongovernmental organization
nmNautical mile
NMFSNational Marine Fisheries Service. See above.
NMFS NWFSCNational Marine Fisheries Service Northwest Fisheries Science Center
NMFS NWRNational Marine Fisheries Service Northwest Region
NMFS SWRNational Marine Fisheries Service Southwest Region
NMFS WCRNational Marine Fisheries Service West Coast Region
NMSNational Marine Sanctuary
NMSANational Marine Sanctuaries Act
NMSPNational Marine Sanctuaries Program
NOAANational Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration. The parent agency of National Marine Fisheries Service.
NOAA GCNOAA (see above) General Counsel
NOINotice of Intent
NontrawlWithin the context of the groundfish limited fleet, “nontrawl” and “fixed gear” are the same, i.e. longline and fishpot gear. Within the context of the entire groundfish fishery, nontrawl gear includes longline, fishpot, and any other gear that is not trawl gear (troll, gillnet, vertical hook-and-line, etc.).
NORPACNorth Pacific Database Program
NOSNational Ocean Service
NPCCNorthwest Power and Conservation Council (formerly known as the Northwest Power Planning Council)
NPDESNational Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
NPFMCNorth Pacific Fishery Management Council. The NPFMC consists of the state of Alaska, with representation by Washington and Oregon.
NPOANational Plan of Action
NRCNational Research Council
NRDCNatural Resources Defense Council
NS1National Standard 1
NSFNational Science Foundation
NSGNational Standards Guidelines. See above.
NWFSCNorthwest Fisheries Science Center (in Seattle; a division of NMFS)
NWIFCNorthwest Indian Fisheries Commission
NWRNorthwest Region
OAOpen access fishery. See below.
OceanicInhabiting the open sea, ranging beyond the continental and insular shelves, beyond the neritic zone.
OCNOregon coastal natural (coho)
OCNMSOlympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary
OCZMAOregon Coast Zone Management Act
ODFWOregon Department of Fish and Wildlife
OFLOverfishing limit
OLEOffice of Law Enforcement (NOAA Fisheries)
OMBOffice of Management and Budget
Open-access fisheryThe segment of the groundfish fishery or any other fishery for which entry is not controlled by a limited entry permitting program.
Optimum yieldThe amount of fish that will provide the greatest overall benefit to the Nation, particularly with respect to food production and recreational opportunities, and taking into account the protection of marine ecosystems. The OY is developed on the basis of the Maximum Sustained Yield from the fishery, taking into account relevant economic, social, and ecological factors. In the case of overfished fisheries, the OY provides for rebuilding to a level that is consistent with producing the Maximum Sustained Yield for the fishery.
OSPOptimum sustainable production, Oregon State Police
OSUOregon State University
OvercapacityA level of fishing pressure that threatens to reduce a stock or complex below the abundance necessary to support maximum sustainable yield and allow an economically sustainable fishing industry.
OverfishedAny stock or stock complex whose size is sufficiently small that a change in management practices is required to achieve an appropriate level and rate of rebuilding. The term generally describes any stock or stock complex determined to be below its overfished/rebuilding threshold. The default proxy is generally 25% of its estimated unfished biomass; however, other scientifically valid values are also authorized.
OverfishingFishing at a rate or level that jeopardizes the capacity of a stock or stock complex to produce MSY on a continuing basis. More specifically, overfishing is defined as exceeding a maximum allowable fishing mortality rate. For any groundfish stock or stock complex, the maximum allowable mortality rate will be set at a level not to exceed the corresponding MSY rate (FMSY) or its proxy.
OYOptimum yield. See above.
P*Probability of overfishing.
PacFINPacific Coast Fisheries Information Network. Provides commercial fishery information for Washington, Oregon, and California. Maintained by the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission.
Pacific decadal oscillationA long-term, El Nino-like pattern of Pacific Ocean climate variability.
Pacific Salmon Treaty (PST)Created in 1985 through cooperative efforts of tribes, state governments, U.S. and Canadian governments, and sport and commercial fishing interests. The Pacific Salmon Commission (PSC) was created to implement the treaty. The PSC establishes fishery and allocation regimes, develops management recommendations and is a forum for working on fishery issues.
Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission.The PSMFC is a non-regulatory agency that serves Alaska, California, Idaho, Oregon and Washington. PSMFC (headquartered in Portland) provides a communication exchange between the Pacific Fishery Management Council and the North Pacific Fishery Management Council, and a mechanism for Federal funding of regional fishery projects. The PSMFC provides information in the form of data services for various fisheries.
PBRPotential biological removal. See below.
PCFFAPacific Coast Federation of Fishermen’s Associations
PDFProbability density function.
PDOPacific decadal oscillation. See above.
PEISProgrammatic Environmental Impact Statement. An EIS that applies to an entire program or management regime, rather than a specific action.
PelagicInhabiting the water column, as opposed to being associated with the sea floor; generally occurring anywhere from the surface to 1000 meters (547 fm). See also epipelagic and mesopelagic.
Permit stackingThe registration of more than one limited entry permit for a single vessel, where a vessel is allowed additional catch for each additional permit registered for use with the vessel.
PFMCPacific Fishery Management Council
PIE ruleProgram Improvements and Enhancements rule
PMAXThe estimated probability of reaching TMAX. May not be less than 50%.
PNWPacific Northwest
POPPacific ocean perch
Potential biological removalThe maximum number of animals, not including natural mortalities, that may be removed from a marine mammal stock while allowing that stock to reach or maintain its optimum sustainable population.
PPAPreliminary preferred alternative
PRAPaperwork Reduction Act
Preferred alternativeThe alternative that is identified as preferred by the authors of an environmental impact statement or environmental assessment. It is identified to indicate which alternative is likely to be selected, thereby helping the public focus its comments.
ProcessingThe preparation or packaging of fish to render it suitable for human consumption, retail sale, industrial uses, or long-term storage, including but not limited to cooking, canning, smoking, salting, drying, filleting, freezing, or rendering into meal or oil, but not heading and gutting unless additional preparation is done.
Proposed alternativesAlternatives proposed by the Council for a proposed management action (such as annual management specifications). The alternatives are presented to the public for comment, and are voted upon at a subsequent Council meeting. The options always include a “status quo” alternative (for example the current season’s ABCs and OYs).
PSCPacific Salmon Commission
PSMFCPacific States Marine Fisheries Commission. See above.
PSTPacific Salmon Treaty
QPQuota pounds
QSQuota share (related to individual fishing quotas; see below)
QuotaA specified numerical harvest objective, the attainment (or expected attainment) of which causes closure of the fishery for that species or species group.
Quota sharesA share of the Total Allowable Catch (TAC) allocated to an operating unit such as a vessel, a company or an individual fisherman (individual quota) depending on the system of allocation. Quotas may or may not be transferable, inheritable, and tradable. While generally used to allocate total allowable catch, quotas could be used also to allocate fishing effort or biomass.
RCARockfish Conservation Area, riparian conservation area
RebuildingImplementing management measures that increase a fish stock to its target size.
Rebuilding analysisAn analysis that uses biological information to describe the probability that a stock will rebuild within a given timeframe under a particular management regime.
Rebuilding planA document that describes policy measures that will be used to rebuild a fish stock that has been declared overfished.
RecFinRecreational Fishery Information Network. A database managed by the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission that provides recreational fishery information for Washington, Oregon, and California.
RecruitsRecruits are a group (“cohort”) of young fish that enter a fish stock in one year.
Recruits/recruitmentThe estimated production of new members to a fish population as measured at a specific life stage.
Regulatory Flexibility Analysis (or Act).Regulatory Flexibility Act (see IRFA and FRFA above). See below. The Regulatory Flexibility Act (5 U.S.C. 601-612) requires federal agencies to consider the effects of their regulatory actions on small businesses and other small entities and to minimize any undue disproportionate burden.
Regulatory Impact ReviewRIRs are prepared to determine whether a proposed regulatory action is “major.” The RIR examines alternative management measures and their economic impacts.
RERRecovery Exploitation Rates
RFARegulatory Flexibility Analysis, or Regulatory Flexibility Act. See above.
RFMORegional Fishery Management Organizations
Riparian areaA land area adjacent to water. Technical definition: “riparian area” means an area of land that (a) is adjacent to a stream, river, lake or wetland, and (b) contains vegetation that, due to the presence of water, is distinctly different from the vegetation of adjacent upland areas. (Code of British Columbia)
RIRRegulatory Impact Review. See above.
ROARange of alternatives
RODRecord of Decision
ROVRemotely operated vehicle (submarine)
RPAsReasonable and prudent alternatives
RulemakingThe process of developing Federal regulations which occurs in several steps, including publishing proposed rules in the Federal Register, accepting comments on the proposed rule, and publishing the final rule. An “advanced notice of proposed rulemaking” is published when dealing with especially important or controversial rules.
SAFEStock assessment and fishery evaluation. See below.
Saltonstall-Kennedy ActThe Saltonstall-Kennedy Act allocates 30% of the duties for imported fishery products to technological, biological, marketing, and other research and services in order to promote the free flow of domestically-produced fishery products and to develop markets for domestic fishery products.
SASSalmon Advisory Subpanel
Scientific and Statistical CommitteeAn advisory committee of the PFMC made up of scientists and economists. The Magnuson-Stevens Act requires that each council maintain an SSC to assist in gathering and analyzing statistical, biological, ecological, economic, social, and other scientific information that is relevant to the management of Council fisheries.
SDCStatus determination criteria
SecretaryU.S. Secretary of Commerce
SEISSupplemental Environmental Impact Statement (see Environmental Impact Statement)
SFASustainable Fisheries Act of 1996. Amended the MSFCMA.
SFOSustainable Fisheries Office (NMFS)
Shelf rockfishRockfish that live on the continental shelf
SIASocial impact analysis
S-KSaltonstall-Kennedy. See above.
Slope rockfishRockfish that live on the continental slope
SONCCSouthern Oregon Northern California coastal coho (an evolutionarily significant unit)
SONCCWGAd Hoc Southern Oregon Northern California Coast Coho Workgroup
SOPPStatement of Organization, Practices, and Procedures
Southern California BightSee California Bight, above.
Spawning biomassThe biomass of mature female fish at the beginning of the year. If the production of eggs is not proportional to body weight, then this definition is construed to be proportional to expected egg production.
SPRSpawning biomass per recruit
SPRSpawning potential ratio. The ratio of spawning potential per recruit under a given fishing regime, relative to the spawning potential per recruit with no fishing.
SRFCSacramento River fall Chinook
SRISacramento River index
SRKWWGAd Hoc Southern Resident Killer Whale Workgroup
SSBSpawning stock biomass
SSCScientific and Statistical Committee. See above.
SSTSea surface temperature
STARStock assessment review
STAR PanelStock Assessment Review Panel. A panel set up to review stock assessments for particular fisheries. In the past there have been STAR panels for sablefish, rockfish, squid, and other species.
Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation.A SAFE document is a document prepared by the Council that provides a summary of the most recent biological condition of species in the fishery management unit, and the social and economic condition of the recreational and commercial fishing industries, including the fish processing sector. It summarizes, on a periodic basis, the best available information concerning the past, present, and possible future condition of the stocks and fisheries managed in the FMP.
STTSalmon Technical Team
SWFSCSouthwest Fisheries Science Center (NMFS)
SWRSouthwest Region
TACTotal allowable catch. See below.
Territorial seaThe territorial sea of the United States extends 12 nautical miles offshore. States exercise authority over marine fisheries in waters from the coastline to 3 miles offshore.
TMAXThe maximum time period to rebuild an overfished stock, according to National Standard Guidelines. Depends on biological, environmental, and legal/policy factors.
TMINThe minimum time period to rebuild an overfished stock, according to National Standard Guidelines. Technically, this is the minimum amount of time in which a fish stock will have a 50% chance of rebuilding if no fishing occurs (depends on biological and environmental factors).
TNCThe Nature Conservancy
Total allowable catchThe total regulated catch from a stock in a given time period, usually a year. (NMFS)
Total catch OYTotal catch optimum yield. The landed catch plus discard mortality.
TTARGETThe target year, set by policy, for a fish stock to be completely rebuilt.
U/AUsual and accustomed (usually used when referring to tribal fishing, hunting or gathering areas)
USCGU.S. Coast Guard. A representative of the USCG is a non-voting member of the Council.
USFSU.S. Forest Service
USFWSU.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. A representative of USFWS is a non-voting member of the Council.
USGSU.S. Geological Survey
Vessel Monitoring SystemA satellite communications system used to monitor fishing activities­—for example, to ensure that vessels stay out of prohibited areas. The system is based on electronic devices (transceivers), which are installed on board vessels. These devices automatically send data to shore-based “satellite” monitoring system.
VMSVessel monitoring system. See above.
WCPWest Coast Pelagic Conservation Group
WCPFCWestern and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission
WCSPAWest Coast Seafood Processors Association
WCVIWest Coast Vancouver Island
WDFWWashington Department of Fish and Wildlife. A representative of WDFW sits on the Council.
WFOAWestern Fishboat Owners Association
WPFMCWestern Pacific Fishery Management Council
Yield per recruitA model that estimates yield in terms of weight, but more often as a percentage of the maximum sustainable yield, for various combinations of natural mortality, fishing mortality and time exposed to the fishery (NOAA).